Many modern video codecs rely on a YCbCr colorspace. More correctly written this is YCbCr, with the 'b' and 'r' characters as subscripts. This is what the components represent:
- Y = luminance, or intensity
- Cb = "blue chrominance", or more precise the color deviation from grey on a blue-yellow axe
- Cr = "red chrominance", or more precise the color deviation from grey on a red-cyan axe
Green can be calculated based on thes three values.
YCbCr is often falsely mixed up with YUV, which is a different colorspace that is not used in digigal media but in analog PAL-based stuff as analog TV transmission or analog video tapes.
Note that with most digital RGB color encodings, every single pixel has a different R, G, and B sample. The same is not true with many YCbCr color endodings. These YCbCr variants operate on the empirical evidence that the human eye is more sensitive to variations in the intensity of a pixel rather than variations in color. Thus, every pixel in an image of such a YCbCr variant has an associated Y sample, but groups of pixels share Cb and Cr samples.
For information on specific YCbCr formats, see the YCbCr formats category page.