Difference between revisions of "Reconstructing AAC CPE"

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m (apply_scalefactors(ic_string ics, real spec_coeff[1024]): edit got stepped on)
m (is_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024]))
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== is_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024]) ==
 
== is_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024]) ==
This function decodes intensity stereo decoding.
+
This function decodes intensity stereo coding.
 
   nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usually 1024)
 
   nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usually 1024)
 
   group = 0
 
   group = 0

Revision as of 00:06, 13 March 2006

Part of Understanding AAC

This page describes the process of reconstructing PCM data based on the decoded CPE parameters in an AAC bitstream. For the moment, this description focuses on what is necessary to reconstruct low complexity (LC) profile data.

Reconstruction Process

 specrec.c:reconstruct_channel_pair()
   +-specrec.c:allocate_channel_pair()
   +-specrec.c:inverse_quantization()
   +-specrec.c:apply_scalefactors()
   +-specrec.c:quant_to_spec()
   +-pns.c:pns_decode()
     +-pns.c:generate_random_vector()
   +-ms.c:ms_decode()
   +-is.c:is_decode()
   +-ic_predict.c:ic_prediction() (main profile)
   +-ic_predict.c:pns_reset_pred_state() (main profile)
   +-(processing that is specific LTP & LD profiles)
   +-tns.c:tns_decode_frame()
   +-drc.c:drc_decode()
   +-filtbank.c:ifilter_bank()
     +-filtbank.c:imdct_long()
     +-mdct.c:faad_imdct()
   +-ssr.c:ssr_decode()
   +-lt_predict.c:lt_update_state()
   +-sbr_dec.c:sbrDecodeInit()
   +-sbr_dec.c:sbrDecodeCoupleFrame()

reconstruct_channel_pair(2 ic_streams, 2 spec_data arrays(16 bit ints))

 declare 2 1024-element float arrays for spectral coefficients (spec_coeff1 and spec_coeff2)
 inverse_quantization(spec_coeff1, spec_data1)
 inverse_quantization(spec_coeff2, spec_data2)
 apply_scalefactors(ics1, spec_coeff1)
 apply_scalefactors(ics2, spec_coeff2)
 if ics1.window_sequence is EIGHT_SHORT_SEQUENCE (2)
   quant_to_spec(ics1, spec_coeff1)
 if ics2.window_sequence is EIGHT_SHORT_SEQUENCE (2)
   quant_to_spec(ics2, spec_coeff2)
 if ics1.ms_mask_present
   pns_decode(ics1, ics2, spec_coef1, spec_coeff2)
 else
   pns_decode(ics1, spec_coef1)
   pns_decode(ics2, spec_coef2)
 ms_decode(ics1, ics2, spec_coef1, spec_coef2)
 is_decode(ics1, ics2, spec_coef1, spec_coef2)
 // main profile decoding
 // LTP decoding
 tns_decode(ics1, spec_coeff1)
 tns_decode(ics2, spec_coeff2)
 // DRC stuff
 ifilter_bank(ics1, spec_coeff1)
 ifilter_bank(ics2, spec_coeff2)
 save window shape for next frame (I thought frames were independent)
 // LTP stuff
 // SBR stuff

allocate_channel_pair()

This function mostly contains considerations for non-LC decoding modes. Need to revisit the mechanics of this later.

inverse_quantization(real spec_coeff[1024], int16 spec_data[1024])

Perform inverse non-linear quantization of spectral coefficients, converting from int -> real in the process. Can this be effectively parallelized via SIMD?

 foreach i in 0..1023
   spec_coeff[i] = abs(spec_data[i])4/3
   if (spec_data[i] < 0)
     spec_coeff[i] = -spec_coeff[i]

apply_scalefactors(ic_string ics, real spec_coeff[1024])

 nshort = frame_length (1024) / 8
 groups = 0
 foreach g in 0..ics.num_window_groups - 1
   k = 0
   foreach scalefactor_band in 0..ics.max_scalefactor_bands - 1
     top = ics.section_scalefactor_band_offset[g][scalefactor_band + 1]
     if (ics.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band] < 0) OR (ics.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band] > 255)
       scale = 1
     else
       exponent = (ics.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band] - 100) / 4.0
       scale = 2exponent
     while (k < top)
       spec_coeff[k + (groups * nshort) + 0] *= scale
       spec_coeff[k + (groups * nshort) + 1] *= scale
       spec_coeff[k + (groups * nshort) + 2] *= scale
       spec_coeff[k + (groups * nshort) + 3] *= scale
       k += 4
   groups += ics.window_group_length[g]

quant_to_spec(ic_stream ics, real spec_coeff[1024])

Comment from FAAD2:

 For ONLY_LONG_SEQUENCE windows (num_window_groups = 1,
 window_group_length[0] = 1) the spectral data is in ascending spectral
 order.
 For the EIGHT_SHORT_SEQUENCE window, the spectral order depends on the
 grouping in the following manner:
 - Groups are ordered sequentially
 - Within a group, a scalefactor band consists of the spectral data of all
   grouped SHORT_WINDOWs for the associated scalefactor window band. To
   clarify via example, the length of a group is in the range of one to eight
   SHORT_WINDOWs.
 - If there are eight groups each with length one (num_window_groups = 8,
   window_group_length[0..7] = 1), the result is a sequence of eight spectra,
   each in ascending spectral order.
 - If there is only one group with length eight (num_window_groups = 1,
   window_group_length[0] = 8), the result is that spectral data of all eight
   SHORT_WINDOWs is interleaved by scalefactor window bands.
 - Within a scalefactor window band, the coefficients are in ascending
   spectral order.

Algorithm:

 allocate a temporary spectral data array: temp_spec[1024]
 k = gindex = 0
 foreach g in 0..ics.num_window_groups - 1
   j = gincrease = 0
   window_increment = ics.scalefactor_window_band_offset[ics.num_scalefactor_window_bands]
   foreach scalefactor_band in 0..ics.num_scalefactor_window_bands - 1 
     width = ics.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1] -
      ics.scalefactor_window_band[scalefactor_band]
     foreach window in 0..ics.window_group_length[g] - 1
       foreach bin in 0..width - 1, step 4
         temp_spec[gindex + (window * window_increment) + j + bin + 0] = spec_coeff[k + 0]
         temp_spec[gindex + (window * window_increment) + j + bin + 1] = spec_coeff[k + 1]
         temp_spec[gindex + (window * window_increment) + j + bin + 2] = spec_coeff[k + 2]
         temp_spec[gindex + (window * window_increment) + j + bin + 3] = spec_coeff[k + 3]
         gincrease += 4
         k += 4
     j += width
   gindex + gincrease
 copy temp_spec -> spec_coeff

pns_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024], bool channel_pair)

pns = perceptual noise substitution

 group = 0
 nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usually 1024)
 foreach g in ics1.num_window_groups - 1
   foreach b in ics1.window_group_length[g] - 1
     foreach scalefactor_band in 0..ics1.max_scalefactor_bands - 1
       if ics1.scalefactor_band_codebook[group][scalefactor_band] == NOISE_HCB (13)
         /* LTP and PNS are not allowed in the same band and PNS takes precedence;
          * thus, disable LTP for this band */
         ics1.ltp.long_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
         ics1.ltp2.long_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
         /* disable predictors for bands using PNS */
         ics1.pred.prediction_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
         offset = ics1.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band]
         size = ics1.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1] - offset
         generate_random_vector(&spec_coeff1[(group * nshort) + offset], ics1.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band], size)
       if channel_pair AND ics2.scalefactor_band_codebook[g][scalefactor_band] == NOISE_HCB (13)
         if (ics1.midside_mask_present == 1 AND ics1.midside_used[g][scalefactor_band]) OR ics1.midside_mask_present == 2
           offset = ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band]
           size = ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1] - offset
           foreach c in 0..size - 1
             spec_coeff2[(group * nshort) + offset + c] = spec_coeff1[(group * nshort) + offset + c]
         else
           /* LTP and PNS are not allowed in the same band and PNS takes precedence;
            * thus, disable LTP for this band */
           ics2.ltp.long_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
           ics2.ltp2.long_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
           /* disable predictors for bands using PNS */
           ics2.pred.prediction_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
           offset = ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band]
           size = ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1] - offset
           generate_random_vector(&spec_coeff2[(group * nshort) + offset], ics2.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band], size)
       group++

generate_random_vector(real spec_coeff[], int scale_factor, int size)

The AAC decode process can generate random numbers as part of the decode process. It is not known if any random number generator will do. This section documents the precise operation of the generator used in FAAD2. A comment from the source code:

/* The function gen_rand_vector(addr, size) generates a vector of length
  <size> with signed random values of average energy MEAN_NRG per random
  value. A suitable random number generator can be realized using one
  multiplication/accumulation per random value.
*/

Algorithm:

 energy = 0
 scale = 1/size
 foreach i in 0..size - 1
   tmp = scale * random_int()
   spec_coeff[i] = tmp
   energy += tmp * tmp
 exponent = 0.25 * scale_factor;
 scale = 2exponent/sqrt(energy)
 foreach 1 in 0..size - 1
   spec_coeff[i] *= scale

As for the random_int() function, this is FAAD's comment:

/*
*  This is a simple random number generator with good quality for audio purposes.
*  It consists of two polycounters with opposite rotation direction and different
*  periods. The periods are coprime, so the total period is the product of both.
*
*     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* +-> |31:30:29:28:27:26:25:24:23:22:21:20:19:18:17:16:15:14:13:12:11:10: 9: 8: 7: 6: 5: 4: 3: 2: 1: 0|
* |   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* |                                                                          |  |  |  |     |        |
* |                                                                          +--+--+--+-XOR-+--------+
* |                                                                                      |
* +--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
*
*     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*     |31:30:29:28:27:26:25:24:23:22:21:20:19:18:17:16:15:14:13:12:11:10: 9: 8: 7: 6: 5: 4: 3: 2: 1: 0| <-+
*     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   |
*       |  |           |  |                                                                               |
*       +--+----XOR----+--+                                                                               |
*                |                                                                                        |
*                +----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
*
*
*  The first has an period of 3*5*17*257*65537, the second of 7*47*73*178481,
*  which gives a period of 18.410.713.077.675.721.215. The result is the
*  XORed values of both generators.
*/

The algorithm is:

 declare static r1 and r2 as 32-bit unsigned its, initialize both to 0
 declare t1, t2, t3, and t4 as 32-bit unsigned ints
 t3 = t1 = r1
 t4 = t2 = r2
 t1 &= 0xF5
 t2 >>= 25
 t1 = parity[t1]
 t2 &= 0x63
 t1 <<= 31
 t2 = parity[t2]
 r1 = (t3 >> 1) | t1
 r2 = (t4 + t4) | t2
 random_int = r1 ^ r2

This is the parity table referenced in the function:

static const  uint8_t    parity [256] = {
       0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,
       1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,
       1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,
       0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,
       1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,
       0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,
       0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,
       1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,0
};

ms_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024])

This function decodes mid/side coding between to channels.

 group = 0
 nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usualy 1024)
 if ics1.midside_mask_present
   foreach g in 0..ics1.num_window_groups - 1
     foreach b in 0..ics.window_group_length[g] - 1
       foreach scalefactor_band in 0..ics1.max_scalefactor_band - 1
         /* no M/S coding if in PNS or IS are enable for the scalefactor band */
         if (ics1.midside_used[g][scalefactor_band] OR ics1.midside_mask_present == 2) AND
             ics1.scalefactor_band_codebook[group][scalefactor_band] != NOISE_HCB (13) AND
             ics2.scalefactor_band_codebook[group][scalefactor_band] != INTENSITY_HCB or INTENSITY_HCB2 (15 or 14, respectively)
           foreach i in ics1.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band] .. ics1.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1]
             k = (group * nshort) + i
             tmp = spec_coeff1[k] - spec_coeff2[k]
             spec_coeff1[k] += spec_coeff2[k]
             spec_coeff2[k] = tmp
       group++

is_decode(ic_stream ics1, ic_stream ics2, real spec_coeff1[1024], real spec_coeff2[1024])

This function decodes intensity stereo coding.

 nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usually 1024)
 group = 0
 foreach g in 0..ics2.num_window_groups - 1
   foreach b in 0..ics2.window_group_length[g]
     if ics2.scalefactor_band_codebook[group][scalefactor_band] is either INTENSITY_HCB or INTENSITY_HCB2 (15 or 14)
       /* disable predictors if intensity stereo is in use for this scalefactor band */
       ics1.pred.prediction_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
       ics2.pred.prediction_used[scalefactor_band] = 0
       exponent = 0.25 * ics2.scalefactors[g][scalefactor_band]
       scale = 0.5exponent
       foreach i in ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band] .. ics2.scalefactor_window_band_offset[scalefactor_band + 1]
         spec_coeff2[(group * nshort) + i] = spec_coeff1[(group * nshort) + i] * scale
         invert spec_coeff2[(group * nshort) + i] under certain conditions (TODO)
     group++

ic_prediction()

This function applies to the main profile.

pns_reset_pred_state()

This function applies to the main profile.

tns_decode_frame(ic_stream ics, tns_info tns, int sample_rate_index, int object_type, real spec_coeff[1024])

tns = temporal noise shaping

 nshort = frame_length / 8 (frame_length is usually 1024)
 declare array of real called lpc[TNS_MAX_ORDER + 1] (TNS_MAX_ORDER = 20)
 if ics.tns_data_present == 0
   nothing to do in this phase
 (TODO)

drc_decode()

ifilter_bank()

imdct_long()

In low complexity mode, this function simply calls down to faad_imdct(). If LD is enabled, there is some more processing beforehand.

faad_imdct(real *in, real *out)

This comment appears in FAAD2's mdct.c file header:

"Fast (I)MDCT Implementation using (I)FFT ((Inverse) Fast Fourier Transform) and consists of three steps: pre-(I)FFT complex multiplication, complex (I)FFT, post-(I)FFT complex multiplication."

This function is apparently a good candidate for SIMD optimization.

ssr_decode()

lt_update_state()

sbrDecodeInit()

sbrDecodeCoupleFrame()