# AMR-NB-WIP

## AMR narrow band decoder

This text aims to be a simpler and more explicit document of the AMR narrow band decoding processes to aid in development of a decoder. Reference to sections of the specification will be made in the following format: (c.f. §5.2.5). Happy reading.

### Nomenclature weirdness

Throughout the specification, a number of references are made to the same (or very similar) items with fairly confusing variation. They are listed below to aid understanding of the following text but efforts will be made to consistently use one item name throughout or to use both with the lesser used name in parenthesis.

- Pitch / Adaptive codebook
- Fixed / Innovative (also algebraic when referring to the codebook)
- Quantified means not quantised

### Summary

- Mode dependent bitstream parsing
- Indices parsed from bitstream
- Indices decoded to give LSF vectors, fractional pitch lags, innovative code vectors and the pitch and innovative gains
- LSF vectors converted to LP filter coefficients at each subframe
- Subframe decoding
- Excitation vector = adaptive code vector * adaptive (pitch) gain + innovative code vector * innovative gain
- Excitation vector filtered through an LP synthesis filter to reconstruct speech
- Speech signal filtered with adaptive postfilter

### Bitstream parsing

Documented on http://wiki.multimedia.cx/index.php?title=AMR-NB and in 26.101

For implementation, see http://svn.mplayerhq.hu/soc/amr/amrnbdec.c?view=markup

### Decoding of LP filter parameters

The received indices of LSP quantization are used to reconstruct the quantified LSP vectors. (c.f. §5.2.5)

#### 12.2kbps mode summary

- indices into code books are parsed from the bit stream
- indices give elements of split matrix quantised (SMQ) residual LSF vectors from the relevant code books
- prediction from the previous frame is added to obtain the mean-removed LSF vectors
- the mean is added
- the LSF vectors are converted to cosine domain LSP vectors

##### Indices give elements of split matrix quantised (SMQ) residual LSF vectors from the relevant code books

The elements of the SMQ vectors are stored at an index into a code book that varies according to the mode. There are 5 code books for the 12.2kbps mode corresponding to the 5 indices. These tables will be referred to as:

`lsf_m_n`

- m
- the number of indices parsed according to the mode
- n
- the index 'position' i.e. 1 for the first index, etc

The 5 indices are stored using 7, 8, 8 + sign bit, 8, 6 bits respectively. The four elements of a 'split quantized sub-matrix' are stored at the index position in the appropriate code book are:

- 1st index in 1st code book
- r1_1, r1_2, r2_1, r2_2
- 2nd index in 2nd code book
- r1_3, r1_4, r2_3, r2_4
- 3rd index in 3rd code book
- r1_5, r1_6, r2_5, r2_6
- 4th index in 4th code book
- r1_7, r1_8, r2_7, r2_8
- 5th index in 5th code book
- r1_9, r1_10, r2_9, r2_10

With rj_i :

- j
- the first or second residual lsf vector
- i
- the coefficient of a residual lsf vector ( i = 1, ..., 10 )

- rj_i
- residual line spectral frequencies (LSFs) in Hz

##### Prediction from the previous frame is added to obtain the mean-removed LSF vectors

zj(n) = rj(n) + 0.65*^r2(n-1)

- zj(n)
- a mean-removed LSF vector from the current frame (denoted n)
- ^r2(n-1)
- the quantified 2nd residual vector of the last frame (denoted n-1)

##### The mean is added

fj = zj + lsf_mean_m

- lsf_mean_m
- a table of the means of the LSF coefficients
- m
- the number of indices parsed according to the mode
- fj
- the LSF vectors

##### The LSF vectors are converted to cosine domain LSP vectors

qk_i = cos( fj_i * 2 * π / f_s )

- qk_i
- line spectral pairs (LSPs) in the cosine domain
- k
- the two lsf vectors give the LSP vectors q2, q4 at the 2nd and 4th subframes; k = 2*j
- fj_i
- ith coefficient of the jth LSF vector; [0,4000] Hz
- f_s
- sampling frequency in Hz (8kHz)

#### Other active modes summary

The process for the other modes is similar to that for the 12.2kbps mode.

- indices into code books are parsed from the bit stream
- indices give elements of a split matrix quantised (SMQ) residual LSF vector from the relevant code books
- prediction from the previous frame is added to obtain the mean-removed LSF vector
- the mean is added
- the LSF vector is converted to a cosine domain LSP vector

##### Indices give elements of a split matrix quantised (SMQ) residual LSF vector from the relevant code books

The 3 indices are stored with the following numbers of bits:

Mode (kbps) | 1st index (bits) | 2nd index (bits) | 3rd index (bits) |
---|---|---|---|

10.2 | 8 | 9 | 9 |

7.95 | 9 | 9 | 9 |

7.40 | 8 | 9 | 9 |

6.70 | 8 | 9 | 9 |

5.90 | 8 | 9 | 9 |

5.15 | 8 | 8 | 7 |

4.75 | 8 | 8 | 7 |

The four elements of a 'split quantized sub-matrix' are stored at the index position in the appropriate code book are:

- 1st index in 1st code book
- r_1, r_2, r_3
- 2nd index in 2nd code book
- r_4, r_5, r_6
- 3rd index in 3rd code book
- r_7, r_8, r_9, r_10

- r_i
- residual LSF vector (Hz)
- i
- the coefficient of vector ( i = 1, ..., 10 )

##### Prediction from the previous frame is added to obtain the mean-removed LSF vector

z_i(n) = r_i(n) + pred_fac_i * ^r_i(n-1)

- z_i(n)
- the mean-removed LSF vector from the current frame (denoted n)
- pred_fac_i
- the prediction factor for the ith LSF coefficient
- ^r_i(n-1)
- the quantified residual vector of the last frame (denoted n-1)

These processes give the LSP vector at the 4th subframe (q4)

#### The available LSP vector(s) are used to linearly interpolate vectors for the other subframes (c.f. §5.2.6)

##### 12.2 kbps mode

q1(n) = 0.5*q4(n-1) + 0.5*q2(n) q3(n) = 0.5*q2(n) + 0.5*q4(n)

##### Other modes

q1(n) = 0.75*q4(n-1) + 0.25*q4(n) q2(n) = 0.5 *q4(n-1) + 0.5 *q4(n) q3(n) = 0.25*q4(n-1) + 0.75*q4(n)

#### The LSP vector is converted to LP filter coefficients (c.f. §5.2.4)

for i=1..5 f1_i = 2*f1(i-2) - 2 * q_2i-1 * f1(i-1) for j=i-1..1 f1_j += f1(j-2) - 2 * q_2i-1 * f1(j-1) end end

f1_-1 = 0; f1_0 = 0;

Same for f2_i with q_2i insteand of q_2i-1

for i=1..5 f'1_i = f1_i + f1_i-1 f'2_i = f2_i - f2_i-1 end

for i=1..5 a_i = 0.5*f'1_i + 0.5*f'2_i end for i=6..10 a_i = 0.5*f'1_11-i - 0.5*f'2_11-i end

- a_i
- the LP filter coefficients

### Decoding of the adaptive (pitch) codebook vector

- indices parsed from bitstream
- indices give integer and fractional parts of the pitch lag
- adaptive codebook vector v(n) is found by interpolating the past excitation u(n) at the pitch lag using an FIR filter. (c.f. §5.6)

#### Indices give integer and fractional parts of the pitch lag

**Note: division in this section is integer division!**

##### 12.2kbps mode - 1/6 resolution pitch lag

###### First and third subframes

In the first and third subframes, a fractional pitch lag is used with resolutions:

- 1/6 in the range [17 3/6, 94 3/6]
- 1 in the range [95, 143]

...encoded using 9 bits.

For [17 3/6, 94 3/6] the pitch index is encoded as:

pitch_index = (pitch_lag_int - 17)*6 + pitch_lag_frac - 3;

- pitch_lag_int
- integer part of the pitch lag in the range [17, 94]
- pitch_lag_frac
- fractional part of the pitch lag in 1/6 units in the range [-2, 3]

so...

if(pitch_index < (94 4/6 - 17 3/6)*6) // fractional part is encoded in range [17 3/6, 94 3/6] pitch_lag_int = (pitch_index + 5)/6 + 17; pitch_lag_frac = pitch_index - pitch_lag_int*6 + (17 3/6)*6;

And for [95, 143] the pitch index is encoded as:

pitch_index = (pitch_lag_int - 95) + (94 4/6 - 17 3/6)*6;

- pitch_lag_int
- integer pitch lag in the range [95, 143]

so...

else // only integer part encoded in range [95, 143], no fractional part pitch_lag_int = pitch_index - (94 4/6 - 17 3/6)*6 + 95; pitch_lag_frac = 0;

###### Second and fourth subframes

In the second and fourth subframes, a pitch lag resolution of 1/6 is always used in the range [T1 - 5 3/6, T1 + 4 3/6], where T1 is nearest integer to the fractional pitch lag of the previous (1st or 3rd) subframe. The search range is bounded by [18, 143]. In this case the pitch delay is encoded using 6 bits and is therefore in the range [0,63].

So the search range for the pitch lag is:

search_range_min = max(pitch_lag_int_prev - 5, 18); search_range_max = search_range_min + 9; if(search_range_max > 143) { search_range_max = 143; search_range_min = search_range_max - 9; }

- pitch_lag_int_prev
- the integer part of the pitch lag from the previous sub frame

The pitch index is encoded as:

pitch_index = (pitch_lag_int - (search_range_min - 1))*6 + pitch_lag_frac - 3;

- pitch_lag_int
- the integer part of the pitch lag in the range [search_range_min - 1, search_range_max]
- pitch_lag_frac
- the fractional part of the pitch lag in the range [-2, 3]

The formula for the pitch_index has been chosen to map pitch_lag_int [search_range_min - 1, search_range_max] and pitch_lag_frac [-2, 3] to [0,60]. (pitch_index = [0, 10]*6 + [-2, 3] - 3 = [0, 6, ..., 60] + [-5, 0] = [0,60])

So the pitch lag is calculated through:

// integer part of pitch lag = position in range [search_range_min - 1, search_range_max] + lower bound of range pitch_lag_int = (pitch_index + 5)/6 + search_range_min - 1; // fractional part of pitch lag = pitch index - (integer part without offset)*6 - 1 3/6 offset to bring the values to the correct range pitch_lag_frac = pitch_index - ((pitch_index + 5)/6)*6 - 9;

Note that when using integers and integer division to conduct (pitch_index + 5)/6 the result is similar to taking the ceiling of pitch_index/6.0.

##### Others modes - 1/3 resolution pitch lag

###### First and third subframes

In the first and third subframes, a fractional pitch lag is used with resolutions:

- 1/3 in the range [19 1/3, 84 2/3]
- 1 in the range [85, 143]

...encoded using 8 bits.

For [19 1/3, 84 2/3] the pitch lag is encoded as:

pitch_index = pitch_lag_int*3 + pitch_lag_frac - (19 1/3)*3;

- pitch_lag_int
- integer part of the pitch lag in the range [19, 84]
- pitch_lag_frac
- fractional part of the pitch lag in 1/3 units in the range [0, 2]

so...

if(pitch_index < (85 - 19 1/3)*3) // fractional part is encoded in range [19 1/3, 84 2/3] pitch_lag_int = (pitch_index + 2)/3 + 19; pitch_lag_frac = pitch_index - pitch_lag_int*3 + (19 1/3)*3;

And for [85, 143] the pitch index is encoded as:

pitch_index = pitch_lag_int - 85 + (85 - 19 1/3)*3;

- pitch_lag_int
- integer pitch lag in the range [85, 143]

so...

else // only integer part encoded in range [85, 143], no fractional part pitch_lag_int = pitch_index - (85 - 19 1/3)*3 + 85; pitch_lag_frac = 0;

###### Second and fourth subframes

In the second and fourth subframes, the pitch lag resolution varies depending on the mode as follows:

- 7.95 kbps mode
- resolution of 1/3 is always used in the range [T1 - 10 2/3, T1 + 9 2/3]
- encoded using 6 bits => pitch_index is in the range [0, 63]

- 10.2 and 7.40 kbps modes
- resolution of 1/3 is always used in the range [T1 - 5 2/3, T1 + 4 2/3]
- encoded using 5 bits => pitch_index is in the range [0, 31]

- 6.70, 5.90, 5.15 and 4.75 kbps modes
- resolution of 1 is used in the range [T1 - 5, T1 + 4]
- resolution of 1/3 is always used in the range [T1 - 1 2/3, T1 + 2/3]
- encoded using 4 bits => pitch_index is in the range [0, 15]

Where T1 is nearest integer to the fractional pitch lag of the previous (1st or 3rd) subframe. The search range is bounded by [20, 143].

So the search range for the pitch lag is:

lower_bound = 5; range = 9; if(mode == 7.95) { lower_bound = 10; range = 19; } search_range_min = max(pitch_lag_int_prev - lower_bound, 20); search_range_max = search_range_min + range; if(search_range_max > 143) { search_range_max = 143; search_range_min = search_range_max - range; }

- pitch_lag_int_prev
- the integer part of the pitch lag from the previous sub frame

For modes 7.40, 7.95 and 10.2 the pitch index is encoded as:

pitch_index = (pitch_lag_int - search_range_min)*3 + pitch_lag_frac + 2;

- pitch_lag_int
- the integer part of the pitch lag in the range [search_range_min, search_range_max]
- pitch_lag_frac
- the fractional part of the pitch lag in the range [-1, 1]

So the pitch lag is calculated through:

// integer part of pitch lag = position of pitch lag in range [search_range_min, search_range_max] + lower bound of the range pitch_lag_int = (pitch_index + 2)/3 - 1 + search_range_min; // fractional part of pitch lag = pitch index - (integer part without offset)*3 - 2/3 to bring the values to the correct range pitch_lag_frac = pitch_index - ((pitch_index + 2)/3 - 1)*3 - 2;

For modes 4.75, 5.15, 5.90 and 6.70:

t1_temp = max( min(pitch_lag_int_prev, search_range_min + 5), search_range_max - 4 );

- t1_temp
- predicted pitch lag from the previous frame adjusted to fit into the 0 position of the search range

The pitch index is encoded as:

// if pitch lag is below T1 - 1 2/3 if( pitch_lag_int*3 + pitch_lag_frac <= (t1_temp - 2)*3 ) { // encode with resolution 1 index = (pitch_lag_int - t1_temp) + 5; // else if pitch lag is below T1 + 1 }else if( pitch_lag_int*3 + pitch_lag_frac < (t1_temp + 1)*3 ) { // encode with resolution 1/3 index = ( pitch_lag_int*3 + pitch_lag_frac - (t1_temp - 2)*3 ) + 3; // else pitch lag is above T1 + 2/3 }else { // encode with resolution 1 index = (pitch_lag_int - t1_temp) + 11; }

- pitch_lag_int
- the integer part of the pitch lag in the range [search_range_min, search_range_max]
- pitch_lag_frac
- the fractional part of the pitch lag in the range [-1, 1]

The possible pitch indices and values are:

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 |

-5 | -4 | -3 | -2 | -1 2/3 | -1 1/3 | -1 | -2/3 | -1/3 | 0 | 1/3 | 2/3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

So the pitch lag is calculated through:

if(pitch_index < 4) { // integer part of pitch lag = pitch lag position in range [t1_temp - 5, t1_temp - 2] + lower bound of range pitch_lag_int = pitch_index + (t1_temp - 5); // this range is coded with resolution 1 so no fractional part pitch_lag_frac = 0; }else if(pitch_index < 12) { pitch_lag_int = (pitch_index - 2)/3 + (t1_temp - 2); pitch_lag_frac = (pitch_index - 4) - ((pitch_index - 2)/3)*3 - 11; }else { // integer part of pitch lag = pitch lag position in range [t1_temp + 1, t1_temp + 4] + lower bound of range pitch_lag_int = pitch_index - 12 + t1_temp + 1; // this range is coded with resolution 1 so no fractional part pitch_lag_frac = 0; }

#### Adaptive codebook vector is found by interpolating the past excitation at the pitch lag using an FIR filter

- k
- integer pitch lag
- n
- sample position in the vectors 0, ..., 39
- t
- 0, ..., 5 corresponding to fractions 0, 1/6, 2/6, 3/6, -2/6, -1/6 respectively

This equation can be used for both 1/3 and 1/6 resolution simply by multiplying t by 2 in the 1/3 case.

(Note: the coefficients b60 are in the reference source in an array called inter6)

### Decoding of the algebraic (or innovative or fixed) codebook vector

- the excitation pulse positions and signs are parsed from the bit stream
- the pulse positions and signs are encoded differently depending on the mode
- the fixed code book vector, c(n), is then constructed from the pulse positions and signs
- if pitch_lag_int is less than the subframe size (40), the pitch sharpening procedure is applied

#### Decoding the pulse positions

##### 12.2 kbps mode

- 10 pulse positions each coded using 3 bit Gray codes
- signs coded using 1 bit each for 5 pulse pairs

Pulse | Positions |
---|---|

i0,i5 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1,i6 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 |

i2,i7 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37 |

i3,i8 | 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 |

i4,i9 | 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 |

##### 10.2 kbps mode

- 8 pulse positions, 4 pairs, coded as 3 values using 10, 10 and 7 bits
- signs coded using 1 bit each for 4 pulse pairs

Pulse | Positions |
---|---|

i0,i4 | 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 |

i1,i5 | 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37 |

i2,i6 | 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38 |

i3,i7 | 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 39 |

##### 7.95 and 7.40 kbps modes

- 4 pulse positions coded using 3, 3, 3 and 4 bits
- signs coded using 1 bit for each pulse

Pulse | Positions |
---|---|

i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 |

i2 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37 |

i3 | 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38
4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 |

##### 6.70 kbps mode

- 3 pulse positions coded using 3, 4 and 4 bits
- signs coded using 1 bit for each pulse

Pulse | Positions |
---|---|

i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36
3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 |

i2 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37
4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 |

##### 5.90 kbps mode

- 2 pulse positions coded using 4 and 5 bits
- signs coded using 1 bit for each pulse

Pulse | Positions |
---|---|

i0 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36
3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 |

i1 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35
1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 |

##### 5.15 and 4.75 kbps modes

- 2 pulse positions coded using 1 bit for the position subset and 3 bits per pulse
- signs coded using 1 bit for each pulse

Subframe | Subset | Pulse | Positions |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 1 | i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37 | ||

2 | i0 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 | |

i1 | 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 | ||

2 | 1 | i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 | ||

2 | i0 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37 | |

i1 | 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 | ||

3 | 1 | i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37 | ||

2 | i0 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 | |

i1 | 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 | ||

4 | 1 | i0 | 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 |

i1 | 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 | ||

2 | i0 | 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36 | |

i1 | 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39 |

#### Fixed codebook vector construction

All c(n) are zero if there is no pulse at position n. If there is a pulse at position n then it has the corresponding sign as parsed above.

#### Pitch sharpening

c(n) += βc(n-pitch_lag_int)

- β
- the decoded pitch gain, ^g_p, bounded by [0.0,1.0] for 12.2. kbps or [0.0,0.8] for other modes

### Decoding of the pitch and fixed codebook gains

#### Fixed gain prediction

A moving average prediction of the innovation (fixed) energy is conducted.

* MA prediction of the innovation energy * * Mean removed innovation energy (dB) in subframe n * N-1 * E(n) = 10*log(gc*gc * SUM[(code(i) * code(i)]/N) - EMean * i=0 * N=40 * * Mean innovation energy (dB) * N-1 * Ei(n) = 10*log(SUM[(code(i) * code(i)]/N) * i=0 * * Predicted energy * 4 * Ep(n) = SUM[b(i) * R(n-i)] * i=1 * b = [0.68 0.58 0.34 0.19] * R(k) is quantified prediction error at subframe k * * E_Mean = 36 dB (MR122) * * Predicted gain gc is found by * * gc = POW[10, 0.05 * (Ep(n) + EMean - Ei)]

- g_c'
- fixed gain prediction
- \tilde{E}
- predicted energy
- \bar{E}
- desired mean innovation (fixed) energy
- E_I
- calculated mean innovation (fixed) energy

- b
- 4-tap MA prediction coefficients [0.68, 0.58, 0.34, 0.19]
- ^R(k)
- quantified prediction errors at subframe k

<insert equation for ^R(k) here>

Desired mean innovation (fixed) energy:

Mode (kbps) | Mean energy (dB) |
---|---|

12.2 | 36 |

10.2 | 33 |

7.95 | 36 |

7.40 | 30 |

6.70 | 28.75 |

5.90 | 33 |

5.15 | 33 |

4.75 | 33 |

- E_I
- calculated mean innovation (fixed) energy
- N
- subframe size 40
- c(n)
- fixed codebook vector

#### 12.2kbps and 7.95kbps - scalar quantised gains

The received indices are used to find the quantified pitch gain, ^g_p, and the quantified fixed gain correction factor, ^γ_gc.

##### Pitch gain

The parsed pitch index is used to obtain the quantified pitch gain, ^g_p, from the corresponding codebook. (qua_gain_pitch in the reference source.) In the 12.2 kbps mode, the two least significant bits are cleared.

Q: Why?

##### Fixed gain

^g_c = ^γ_gc . g_c'

#### Other modes - vector quantised gains

The received index gives both the quantified adaptive codebook gain, ^g_p, and the quantified algebraic codebook gain correction factor, ^γ_gc. The estimated algebraic codebook gain gc′ is found as described in clause 5.7.

Dec_gain

6.70, 7.40, 10.2 kbps modes - table_gain_highrates 5.15, 5.90 kbps modes - table_gain_lowrates 4.75 kbps mode - table_gain_MR475

gc_pred

### Smoothing of the fixed codebook gain

#### 10.2, 6.70, 5.90, 5.15, 4.75 kbit/s modes

Adaptive smoothing of fixed codebook gain. (c.f. §6.1 part 4)

### Anti-sparseness processing

#### 7.95, 6.70, 5.90, 5.15, 4.75 kbit/s modes

An adaptive anti-sparseness postprocessing procedure is applied to the fixed codebook vector c(n) in order to reduce perceptual artifacts arising from the sparseness of the algebraic fixed codebook vectors with only a few non-zero samples per subframe. The anti-sparseness processing consists of circular convolution of the fixed codebook vector with an impulse response. Three pre-stored impulse responses are used and a number impNr = 0,1,2 is set to select one of them. A value of 2 corresponds to no modification, a value of 1 corresponds to medium modification, while a value of 0 corresponds to strong modification. The selection of the impulse response is performed adaptively from the adaptive and fixed codebook gains. (c.f. §6.1 5)

### Computing the reconstructed speech

Construct excitation:

(c.f. §6.1 part 6)

u(n) is filtered a bit to get the gain-scaled emphasized excitation signal, ^u'(n) then

### Additional instability protection

(c.f. §6.1 part 7)

### Adaptive post-filtering

(c.f. §6.2.1)

### High-pass filtering and upscaling

(c.f. §6.2.2)